Prince Harry, duke of Sussex
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Prince Harry, duke of Sussex, in full Prince Henry Charles Albert David, duke of Sussex, earl of Dumbarton, Baron Kilkeel, formerly Prince Harry of Wales, (born September 15, 1984, London, England), younger son of Charles, prince of Wales, and Diana, princess of Wales.
Because of Princess Diana’s desire that Harry and his elder brother, Prince William, experience the world beyond royal privilege, she took them as boys on public transportation and to fast food restaurants and stood in line with them at Disney World. Determined that they “have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams,” she also took Harry and William with her when she visited homeless shelters, orphanages, and hospitals. Diana’s death at age 36 had a profound impact on Harry. The image of him at age 12 walking solemnly with William behind Diana’s casket as it was carried through the streets of London did much to endear Harry to the British people.
Like William, Harry attended a sequence of private schools before entering prestigious Eton College. After graduating from Eton in 2003, Harry visited Argentina and Africa and worked on a cattle station in Australia and in an orphanage in Lesotho. Instead of going to university, Harry entered Sandhurst—Britain’s leading military academy for training army officers—in May 2005. He was commissioned an officer in April 2006.
Harry being in the line of succession to the British throne, he was often the subject of media attention. In January 2005 he encountered intense criticism when he attended a party wearing a Nazi uniform with a swastika armband. The prince later apologized for what he conceded was a serious error of judgment.
Military service in Afghanistan
In February 2007 it was announced that Harry’s army regiment would be deployed to Iraq, but, on advice from the armed services, it was decided that neither Harry nor William would serve with Britain’s forces in Iraq, for fear that they would become specific targets of attack and so put their fellow soldiers at excessive risk. However, in December 2007 Harry began serving a tour of duty in Afghanistan after the British media agreed to not publicize details of his service; his tour ended in February 2008 after foreign news outlets reported his deployment. In 2012–13 he again was stationed in Afghanistan, where he served as a helicopter pilot. Harry, who attained the rank of captain, left active service in 2015.
Social activism and the Invictus Games
Harry was active in various causes, including wildlife conservation in Africa. In 2006 he helped found a charity for children in Lesotho; it was dedicated to his mother, who had died in 1997. In 2007 Harry and William held a memorial service to mark the 10th anniversary of Diana’s death.
After attending and being impressed by the Warrior Games for injured U.S. servicepeople and veterans, Harry founded the Invictus Games, an international sporting competition for injured and sick veterans and servicepeople. The competition, which debuted in London in 2014, took its name from William Ernest Henley’s inspirational poem “Invictus.” Initial funding was provided by the Royal Foundation created by William and his wife, Catherine, the duchess of Cambridge, and from a donation by the government from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) fund, a pool of fines collected from banks that were punished for violating banking rules such as manipulating the LIBOR. Similar to the Paralympic Games, the Invictus Games include athletics (track and field), archery, wheelchair basketball and rugby, sitting volleyball, road cycling, indoor rowing, and swimming.
In characterizing the significance of the Invictus Games, Harry said:
These Games have shone a spotlight on the “unconquerable” character of service men and women and their families and their “Invictus” spirit. These Games have been about seeing guys sprinting for the finish line and then turning round to clap the last man in. They have been about teammates choosing to cross the line together, not wanting to come second, but not wanting the other guys to either. These Games have shown the very best of the human spirit.
In May 2018 Harry married Meghan Markle—a divorced American actress, daughter of an African American mother and a white father—whose informal approachability and irrepressible personal warmth were reminiscent of the much beloved Diana, remembered as the “People’s Princess.” The ceremony was held in the medieval St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle but was unlike any previous royal wedding. Traditional British pomp and circumstance mixed with elements of African American culture, including the singing of the rhythm-and-blues classic “Stand by Me” by a gospel choir and an impassioned sermon in the tradition of the Black church about the redemptive power of love, delivered by Michael Bruce Curry, the first African American presiding bishop and primate of the Episcopal Church.
The couple, whose union reflected the changing social landscape of an increasingly multicultural Britain, seemed determined to modernize the monarchy and to connect it with the lives of everyday Britons. The guests inside the chapel included members of the British aristocracy, icons of British popular culture (Sir Elton John, David Beckham), and American entertainment royalty (Oprah Winfrey, George Clooney, and Serena Williams), but the couple also had invited some 1,200 individuals who had worked as volunteers for charitable organizations to occupy “ringside seats” on the grass outside St. George’s.
On May 6, 2019, Harry and Meghan had their first child, a boy named Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor; at the time, the baby was seventh in line to the throne. The birth came as the couple faced various difficulties. Although they were initially embraced by the press, their desire for privacy resulted in negative media coverage. In addition, there appeared to be growing tensions between the couple and other royals. In January 2020 Harry and Meghan announced that they would “step back” from their royal duties and become “financially independent.” In addition, they planned to divide their time between the United Kingdom and North America. Following negotiations with the palace, it was announced that Harry and Meghan would “no longer [be] working members of the Royal Family” and that they would not use their HRH titles. The changes took effect on March 31, 2020. The following year the couple confirmed that they would not return as working members of the royal family, which meant that Harry gave up his honorary military appointments as well as royal patronages.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
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